The media

Merci !

Annales corrigées
Classe(s) : Tle L | Thème(s) : Lieux et formes du pouvoir
Type : Expression orale | Année : 2018 | Académie : Inédit


Expression orale • Lieux et formes de pouvoir

Série L

The media

 Présentez la notion « Lieux et formes de pouvoir » en vous appuyant sur les documents de votre dossier.

Document 1

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Ph© Itsuo Inouye/AP Photo/Sipa Press

This photo was taken in Iraq in 2003 by Itsuo Inouye, a photographer for the Associated Press agency, during the US intervention against Saddam Hussein’s regime. The two croppings have been made by Ursula Dahmen for the German daily newspaper Der Tagesspiegel.

Document 2

a. London 2012 Olympics

Olympics cover up: Women beach volleyball players told they can wear MORE clothes

Scantily-clad players could be a thing of the past as organisers change the rules regarding female players’ outfits at the London 2012 Olympic Games

It’s one of the newer Olympic sports, but beach volleyball has developed a cult following since its Games debut in 1996.

The women’s game in particular proved particularly popular, due in no small part to the lack of clothing worn by the participants. Beach volleyball in bikinis: because it’s too warm for sleeves, surely?

But that could all be about to change, with the introduction of some more relaxed rules regarding the uniforms worn on the sand during the London 2012 beach volleyball tournament.

Female players will now have the option of wearing less revealing uniforms as the sport’s governing body looks to respect the varied cultural beliefs of its competing nations.

The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) stated that shorts can be worn instead of bikini bottoms, while bikini tops can be replaced with sleeved tops.

The modified rule permits “shorts of a maximum length of (1.18 inches) above the knee, and sleeved or sleeveless tops.”

The choice will remain with the teams and players themselves, and the relaxed rules are already in place having been introduced to the 142-nation Continental Cup qualification tournament for the Olympic Games.

An FIVB spokesman explained, “Many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements, so the uniform needed to be more flexible.”

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Photo © Scott Heavey/Getty Images/AFP

Spanish duo Alejandra Simon and Andrea Gonzalo Garcia in “traditional” beach volleyball attire

Source : www.mirror.co.uk

b. Sports: Olympics

It’s a cover up: Olympic beach volleyball players to be allowed to wear more clothes

Simon Rice • Tuesday 27 March 2012

Beach volleyball, a sport with minimal following in Britain, was one of the most sought after events when tickets went on sale for this summer’s Olympics.

Since its induction as an Olympic medal event in 1996, the bikinis worn by female competitors have helped define and raise the profile of the sport.

Cynics might suggest that the demand for tickets has been driven as much by the appeal of watching bikini clad competitors as it has been a desire to see world class volleyball in London.

But those heading to Horse Guards Parade this summer hoping to see semi-naked players competing in the sand near Buckingham Palace may find themselves disappointed after the sport’s governing body ruled that female players will have the option to wear less revealing outfits.

The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) has said it will allow shorts and sleeved tops at the 2012 Games, along with the traditional bikinis and body suits already permitted.

“Many of these countries have religious and cultural requirements so the uniform needed to be more flexible,” FIVB spokesman Richard Baker told The Associated Press.

The less revealing outfits were already permitted for the five Continental Cups, through which 142 nations are competing to qualify for the London Games.

“Winners of the Continental Cups will qualify for the Olympics, so it has to be applied,” said Baker.

The modified rule permits “shorts of a maximum length of three centimeters (1.18 inches) above the knee, and sleeved or sleeveless tops”.

The FIVB insists competitors have always had a choice what to wear. “They weren’t forced to wear a bikini,” Baker said.

Source : www.independent.co.uk

Document 3

The Post Investigates

“Five Held in Plot1 to Bug2 Democratic Offices Here,” said the headline at the bottom of page one in The Washington Post on Sunday, June 18, 1972. The story reported that a team of burglars3 had been arrested inside the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate office complex in Washington.

So began the chain of events that would convulse Washington for two years, lead to the first resignation4 of a U.S. president and change American politics forever.

The story intrigued two young reporters on The Post’s staff, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward who were called in to work on the story. As Woodward’s notes show, he learned from police sources that the men came from Miami, wore surgical gloves and carried thousands of dollars in cash. It was, said one source, “a professional type operation”.

The next day, Woodward and Bernstein joined up for the first of many revelatory stories. “GOP5 Security Aide Among Those Arrested,” reported that burglar James McCord was on the payroll6 of President Nixon’s reelection committee. The next day, Nixon and chief of staff H.R. Haldeman privately discussed how to get the CIA to tell the FBI to back off from the burglary investigation. Publicly, a White House spokesman said he would not comment on “a third rate burglary”.

Within a few weeks, Woodward and Bernstein reported that the grand jury investigating the burglary had sought testimony7 from two men who had worked in the Nixon White House, former CIA officer E. Howard Hunt and former FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy. Both men would ultimately be indicted8 for guiding the burglars, via walkie-­talkies, from a hotel room opposite the Watergate building.

In Miami, Bernstein learned that a $25,000 check for Nixon’s re­election campaign had been deposited in the bank account of one of the burglars. The resulting story, “Bug Suspect Got Campaign Funds” reported the check had been given to Maurice Stans, the former Secretary of Commerce who served as Nixon’s chief fundraiser. It was the first time The Post linked the burglary to Nixon campaign funds.

As the two reporters pursued the story, Woodward relied on Mark Felt, a high ranking official at the Federal Bureau of Investigation, as a confidential source. With access to FBI reports on the burglary investigation, Felt could confirm or deny what other sources were ­telling The Post reporters. He also could tell them what leads9 to ­pursue. Woodward agreed to keep his identity secret, referring to him in conversations with colleagues only as “Deep Throat”. His identity would not become public until 2005, 33 years later.

While Nixon cruised toward reelection in the fall of 1972, Woodward and Bernstein scored a string of scoops, reporting that:

• Attorney General John Mitchell controlled a secret fund that paid for a campaign to gather information on the Democrats.

• Nixon’s aides had run “a massive campaign of political spying10 and sabotage” on behalf of Nixon’s reelection effort.

But while other newspapers ignored the story and voters gave Nixon a huge majority in November 1972, the White House continued to denounce The Post’s coverage11 as biased12 and misleading. Post publisher Katharine Graham worried about the administration’s “unveiled threats13 and harassment14”.

[August 1974: Nixon resigned.]

Source : www.washingtonpost.com

1. plot: complot.

2. to bug: mettre un lieu sur micros cachés.

3. burglar /'bɜːɡlə/: voleur.

4. resignation /ˌrezɪɡ'neɪʃn/: démission.

5. GOP (Grand Old Party): Parti républicain.

6. payroll: (liste du) personnel.

7. testimony: témoignage.

8. indicted /ɪn'daɪtɪd/: mis en examen.

9. lead /liːd/: piste.

10. spying /'spaɪɪŋ/: espionnage.

11. coverage /'kʌvərɪdʒ/: couverture (médiatique).

12. biased /'baɪəst/: partial.

13. threat /θret/: menace.

14. harrassment: harcèlement.

Les clés du sujet

La problématique choisie

Par « Lieux et formes de pouvoir », on entend généralement quelque chose de concret : le pouvoir exécutif aux États-Unis s’exerce à la Maison-Blanche, le pouvoir législatif au Congrès, et le pouvoir judiciaire à la Cour suprême.

À côté de ces trois pouvoirs institutionnels, existe un quatrième pouvoir, exercé par les médias qui garantissent théoriquement l’information et peuvent agir comme des contre-pouvoirs en cas d’excès ou de fraude du pouvoir en place.

L’objectif de cette présentation est de montrer le rôle déterminant des médias dans une démocratie, mais aussi de souligner l’importance d’avoir accès à une information fiable, non biaisée : si les médias désinforment, ou utilisent un angle partial, le pouvoir qu’ils exercent peut alors aller à l’encontre du principe démocratique.

Les documents

En lien avec le thème « Lieux et formes de pouvoir », les médias peuvent être abordés sous plusieurs angles. Les documents que nous avons réunis dans ce dossier vous permettent d’en montrer trois aspects clés.

Document 1

La photo centrale de ce document a été prise en Irak le 21 mars 2003, au cours de l’intervention américaine contre le régime de Saddam Hussein. Les deux recadrages (à gauche et à droite) ont été réalisés par Ursula Dahmen, pour le quotidien allemand Der Tagesspiegel.

Pour en savoir plus : www.apimages.com

Ce document nous montre que le cadrage opéré sur une image peut avoir un impact très fort sur la façon dont le document est perçu : ainsi, ici, la même photo reproduite au centre montre – selon son recadrage – un homme à terre menacé (à gauche) ou un homme en train d’être secouru (à droite). Il pose donc le problème de la manipulation possible du lecteur en fonction des choix opérés.

Document 2

Le document 2 se compose d’un premier article issu du Mirror et d’un second tiré de The Independent.

Le Daily Mirror, ou Mirror, est un journal à sensation (tabloid) fondé en 1903, tandis que The Independent n’existe que depuis 1986. Ce journal sérieux (quality newspaper) n’est plus publié qu’au format électronique.

Pour en savoir plus : www.mirror.co.uk et www.independent.co.uk

Ce document est une confrontation de la même information – en soi assez anodine – traitée par deux journaux à la ligne éditoriale très différente, l’un étant réputé « plus sérieux » que l’autre. L’analyse de l’utilisation des images, ainsi que du ton employé par le journaliste, montre la différence dans le traitement de l’événement.

Document 3

Le document 3 provient du Washington Post, journal d’investigation très réputé fondé en 1887, dont l’objectif consiste à dire la vérité, quoi qu’il advienne.

Pour en savoir plus : www.washingtonpost.com

Il s’agit d’un article du Washington Post… sur le Washington Post. Le journal revient sur son rôle déterminant en tant que contre-pouvoir dans l’affaire du Watergate, résumée dans le texte : en 1971, l’immeuble du Watergate fait l’objet d’un cambriolage apparemment anodin, mais visant en fait à poser des micros permettant à l’administration présidentielle d’espionner les membres du parti démocrate. Mis au jour par deux journalistes du Post, ce scandale conduisit à la démission du président républicain Richard Nixon en 1974.

Pistes pour les candidats en LVA (langue vivante approfondie)

Le dossier présenté à l’épreuve orale du baccalauréat doit être constitué de deux documents étudiés en classe, plus un laissé au choix du candidat, choix qui devra être justifié.

Sur le thème proposé, on pourrait imaginer l’ajout d’un document tel que :

un script et/ou un document vidéo sur une conférence de presse ;

un article sur le rôle des réseaux sociaux ou une « fake news » connue véhiculée par ce moyen.